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Avant Series 104

S-104 electric rail car

The trains of the 104 series form a part of the contract awarded on 25 May 2001 to the consortium formed by the companies Alstom and CAF. The contract included the construction of a lot of 20 high-speed trains with international gauge for medium distance services. These trains began providing service along the Cordoba-Seville high-speed corridor on 29 December 2004; along the Madrid-Ciudad Real-Puertollano corridor on 4 January 2005; and between Madrid and Toledo as from 16 November 2005.

On 24 February 2004, an additional order of 30 new compositions was awarded to the same consortium. The contract that was renegotiated throughout 2005, ending in a reduction of the order from 30 to 13 trains on 29 November. These last units constitute the 114 series, an evolution of the 104, with improvements in traction, braking and energy efficiency, as well as comfort and interior design by configuring the entire train as a single class.

The trains of the 104 and 114 series are the first ones of Renfe and in the world to be specifically designed and built to provide medium distance services at high speed. They are trains formed by four cars, with the possibility of running in multiple traction of up to three compositions and at a maximum commercial speed of 250 km/h.

This speed is based on a technology extensively tested by various railway companies, the "Pendolino" technology, although the cars do not tilt, and it uses extensively tried and tested components and equipment. These trains therefore belong to the same family of Alaris trains, which compose the 490 series, although there are differences. Externally they are similar, although they have an additional car, fairing on the roof and two doors per car, except for the cafeteria trailer car. The technical differences include no tilting, the different voltage (25 kVAC and 50 Hz), the track gauge (1435 mm), the maximum speed (250 km/h) and the greater power (4000 kW).

Externally, the new trains have a very aerodynamic profile that provides very low drag; interiorly, they are conceived to provide maximum utility and have an ergonomic design; and as a whole they have suitable modularity that facilitates assembly, repair and maintenance work.

Equipment

Body

This train is formed by two semi-trains, with a complete drive train and redundant equipment and systems.

Aluminium alloys have been used to build the bodies, which make them very light-weight, with a total weight of 242.8 tonnes under normal load for the 104 and 230 tonnes for the 114, thereby making them highly competitive regarding energy consumption with respect to other trains that are capable of reaching the same speeds.

The structure of each body is formed by a flat frame, two sides, a curved roof and two cross-beams on the undercarriage located at the ends.The train is formed by four cars in which the end cars have an aerodynamic front that reduces drag, behind which the driver's cabs with a centred desk are located. The nose of the 114 cab is longer than that of the 104, given that it includes an anti-crash system, a notable characteristic of this train.

Access to the train is through seven vestibules. The access doors are electrically operated and have a mobile running board that operates in conjunction with the door. The train can travel with the doors open, but when it reaches a speed of over 5 km/h, they close automatically. The passage between cars is through intercommunication gangways and six, two-leaf sliding doors with electronic and pneumatic control.

The train has fairing at the top, thereby presenting, together with the shape of the front ends, an aerodynamic profile that reduces drag.

The coupling between units, up to a maximum of three, is made by a Scharfenberg automatic coupler, which is retracted when not in use, and it includes mechanical, pneumatic and electrical coupling. The trains of the 100 series can also be mechanically and automatically coupled. The connection between cars is made using semi-permanent couplers.

Traction and auxiliary systems

The fundamental feature of this train is its distributed traction, which distributes the traction and auxiliary equipment on the undercarriages throughout the composition. This distributed traction is provided by 8, three-phase asynchronous motors that are self-ventilating, and the system includes two transformers and four converters with GTO thyristors to provide 4000 kW of power, quick acceleration and a speed of 250 km/h. Each motor, which is positioned on the car frame perpendicularly to the axle it drives, supplies 500 kW of power. This distribution of the motors on half of the axles provides greater adherence and acceleration.

The train includes energy collection equipment, pantographs and circuit breakers located on the two intermediate cars; four, 72-volt DC battery groups; and two auxiliary units formed by two, 110-kVA converters and two, 12-kW battery chargers. The two motors of each car are permanently connected in parallel to each other and are powered by an electronic inverter. The train thus has four independent traction blocks, one per car.

The auxiliary equipment is designed to be redundant. Each train is formed by two semi-trains that have a pantograph, a main transformer, two traction converters, two brake rheostats and 4, three-phase asynchronous motors that are self-ventilating and provide 550 kW of power.

The trains are equipped with various passive safety systems such as low-speed impact absorption with progressive deformation, in addition to reinforced front ends to ensure comfort.

It includes ERTMS signalling, levels 1 and 2, and idiomatic translators that enable the train to travel with the STM-LZB and ASFA systems on lines where these systems are installed. The train also has GSM-R and conventional train-ground telecommunications equipment, a fault diagnostics and driver assistance system, a continuous monitoring device (deadman) and incident recording equipment, in addition to anti-slip and anti-slide systems, flange lubrication and sanders. It also incorporates passenger information equipment.

Bogies and brakes

The train's eight, dual-axle bogies are motorised: one is a motor axle and the other a trailer axle. Each bogie weighs 7600 kg. They are interchangeable, except for the end bogies, given that they are equipped with the information transmission and reception equipment corresponding to the signalling and traffic control systems.

The primary suspension is on steel coil springs with dampers, and the secondary suspension is pneumatic, with sensor systems that warn of any problem, in addition to anti-tilting devices. The wheels are solid, of a single piece, with an "ORE S-1002" profile. New wheels have a diameter of 890 mm, and the maximum admissible wear is down to a diameter of 810 mm.

Another fundamental characteristic of this train is its braking capacity, provided by an electric brake that allows automatically switching between recovery braking on the motor axles and rheostatic braking. The former type of brake has preference over the latter, although if the power grid cannot absorb the braking energy, braking progressively switches to the rheostatic brake.

It also has a pneumatic/electrodynamic brake with self-ventilating disks, two on the motor axles and three on the carrying axles. The service brake is blended with the pneumatic/electrodynamic brake; the emergency brake is pneumatic with an independent channel; and the rescue brake is blended pneumatic/electrodynamic with pneumatic control. The brake equipment also includes an anti-skid system, plus a locked axle detection system separate from the anti-skid system, and sanders.

The motor axles are equipped with two, self-ventilating disk brakes, and the trailer axles have three disk brakes of the same type. There is compressed air production equipment for the pneumatic brake. The parking break immobilises the train, even on ramps of 35 millimetres and with a maximum load. The braking distance at 250 km/h is approximately 2800 metres.

Technical Specifications

  • Track gauge: 1435 mm.
  • Traction: Electric.
  • Power supply voltage: 25 kV, 50 Hz.
  • Total power: 4000 kW.
  • Commercial speed: 250 km/h.
  • Maximum speed: 270 km/h.
  • Composition: Mc+Mi+Mi+Mc.
  • Motor bogies: 8.
  • Type of motor: Three-phase asynchronous.
  • Driver's cabs: 2.
  • Auxiliary power supply: Four, 110-kVA static converters.
  • Compressor: 2.
  • Type of dynamic brake: Regenerative electric.
  • Type of continuous pneumatic brake: Compressed air.
  • Coupling device: Scharfenberg.
  • Multiple control: 3 trains.
  • Bogie wheelbase: 2700 mm.
  • Wheel diameter: 890 mm.
  • Total seating capacity: 236 + 1 PRM.
  • Seating capacity in car 1: 31 of First class.
  • Seating capacity in car 2: 67 of Standard class + 1 PRM.
  • Seating capacity in car 3: 74 of Standard class.
  • Seating capacity in car 4: 64 of Standard class.
  • Builders: Alstom-CAF .
  • Units in service: 20 .
  • Units under construction:.
  • Commissioning year: 2004.

Weights and dimensions

  • Total length: 107,100 mm.
  • Maximum width: 2920 mm.
  • Maximum height: 4123 mm.
  • Height of the floor above the rail: 1250 mm.
  • Length of cars 1 and 4: 27,600 mm.
  • Length of cars 2 and 3: 25,900 mm.
  • Total unladen weight: 221.5 t.
  • Total weight with maximum load: 242 t.
  • Maximum weight per axle: 17 t.

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