Our Trains

Page content

AVE Series 100R

S-100 electric rail car data sheet

The trains of the 100 series were the first high-speed trains that began operation in April 1992 on the recently inaugurated Madrid-Seville line. These trains were an evolution of the Atlantic TGV, with numerous modifications to adapt them to the operating conditions and market in Spain, such as a new system for decreasing the effects of pressure waves in tunnels, reinforcement of the power of the climate control equipment and the incorporation of LZB and ASFA control and signalling equipment. Technical and aesthetic remodelling to adapt the trains to customer needs was completed in the summer of 2009, after 15 years of activity.



The ten cars forming a composition of this train are two power cars, two end trailer cars and six intermediate trailer cars. The body of the power car is self-supporting, made of steel in a welded construction, and its frame is supported on the two motor bogies. In the interior it contains the driver's cab and the machine room. The front end has aerodynamic fairing made of polyester, with a Scharfenberg automatic coupler installed on the headstock. The rear end-wall has two conventional buffers and a coupling hook, as well as an interconnecting door for access to all other cars of the unit.

A protective, anti-collision shield is positioned in front of the cab, which is capable of absorbing the energy and dampening an impact at 180 km/h without causing damage to the structure of the power car.

The bodies of the end trailers are self-supporting, made of brake-formed or pressed and welded steel sheet. At the end closest to the power car, the frame of the car sits on a bogie, and the other end, through an intercommunication ring, sits on an intermediate carrying bogie that is shared with the next trailer car. In each composition, there are two raised zones in the end trailers of the train: one is used for a meeting room (car 1) and the other for a van (car 8), located over the carrying bogies closest to the power cars.

The bodies of the intermediate trailers are also self-supporting and made of steel and are not as long as the previous cars, and they share bogies and are supported on the intercommunication ring between cars.

The coupling between power cars and end trailer cars is made by means of a coupling hook and buffers, while the coupling between all other trailer cars is by means of the intercommunication ring.

Traction and auxiliary systems

The composition has eight, self-drive synchronous traction motors, and all the electric power equipment is housed in the power cars. Each one has two identical motor blocks for each bogie, plus an auxiliary block and a common block, in addition to a transformer.

Voltage regulation of the traction motors of each bogie takes place at 25 kilovolts through two bridge rectifiers combined with thyristors and diodes, while at 3000 volts it takes place through a chopper with GTO thyristors.

The traction force is adjusted by varying the current on the stator and on the rotor and by adjusting the unblocking times of the electronic control elements. The current on the rotor, powered from a direct current line of 500 volts through an excitation chopper, is proportional to the current running through the stator.

For current collection from the catenary, each power car has two pantographs, one of 25 kilovolts and another of 3000 volts, which are located above the motor bogie closest to the trailers.

The power to the auxiliary electrical equipment is supplied through an auxiliary secondary winding of the main transformer and from a bridge rectifier (power supply at 25 kilovolts), or it is supplied directly from the catenary (power supply at 3000 volts) and through reducing auxiliary choppers that supply direct current at 500 volts. All the auxiliaries of the unit are connected to two 500-volt lines through a diode gate, which means that operation will not be affected if one of the two lines is not operational.

The electronic systems of this train operate in three different areas. One is directly related to passenger service, in which the PA system and climate control are regulated. Another aspect is related to safety, in which the door opening equipment and brake monitoring are controlled. Finally, the third area corresponds to actual control of the train, including aspects related to maintenance, such as self-diagnostics, failure detection and the recording of actions taken. This train also includes signalling in the cabs with the LZB and ASFA systems.

Bogies and brakes

The train has thirteen bogies, four of which are motor bogies located under the power cars, and nine are carrying bogies distributed throughout the rest of the train and designed to provide great ride stability. The distance between the axles of all bogies is 3000 millimetres. This wide, rigid base means that the critical velocity of the bogie is very high. The traction motors and their reducer gears are attached to the frame of the corresponding power car, so the motor bogies and the carrying bogies are similar with respect to mass and stability.

The primary suspension of the power cars consists of concentric coil springs that are supported on the centre of each journal box and dampers located on the side to attenuate vertical movements. The secondary suspension has coil springs and vertical hydraulic dampers positioned between the body and the bogie frame, which attenuate vertical movements and limit pitching movement.

On the trailer cars, the primary suspension consists of concentric coil springs located between each journal box and the bogie frame, plus a vertical damper per journal box. The secondary suspension of the end carrying bogies is pneumatic and includes two vertical dampers. The secondary suspension of these intermediate carrying bogies is also pneumatic. Shock absorption on the motor bogies and end carrying bogies is provided by transversal hydraulic dampers, and all bogies have yaw dampers. The articulated design of the train allows introducing upper and lower body-body dampers and an anti-inclination damper.

The braking system of the series 100 trains is composed of rheostatic, automatic, immobilisation and parking brakes. Of these brakes, the electric brake is the train's priority brake, and it can be used alone or in conjunction with the pneumatic brake. Automatic brake control is electro-pneumatic and is activated from the driver's cab. It also has a rescue brake controller that directly drains the main pipe.

There are four brake blocks in the pneumatic equipment of each one of the motor bogies, with a parking brake. These blocks are equipped with synthesised shoe brakes that are applied to the wheel rims. The brake of each motor bogie is controlled by the microprocessor of the corresponding motor block. A relay supplies two levels of pressure to the brake circuit, depending on whether the speed is above or below 200 km/h. It also allows emergency braking when the rheostatic brake of the motor block is disabled or when the entire motor block is isolated. The parking brake allows immobilising the unit on ramps of 30 mm/m unladen and with winds of up to 100 km/h.

Technical Specifications

  • Minimum composition: 8 cars (M1+R1+R2+R3+R4+R5+R6+R7+R8+M2).
  • Multiple composition: 16 cars (two compositions).
  • Track gauge: 1435 millimetres.
  • Voltage: 25 kilovolts/50 hertz and 3000 volts direct current.
  • Body structure: Steel power cars, end trailer cars of welded sheet and intermediate trailer cars of steel.
  • Maximum speed (km/h): 300 km/h.
  • Seating capacity per train unit: 329 (332 after remodelling, with an increase of 3 seats in Club class).
  • Traction motors: 8 self-drive, three-phase synchronous motors.
  • Total power at 25 kilovolts/50 hertz: 8800 kilowatts.
  • Total power at 3000 volts direct current: 5400 kilowatts.
  • Continuous load power per motor: 1100 kilowatts.
  • Maximum motor speed: 4000 revolutions per minute.
  • Effective voltage between phases: 1246 volts.
  • Starting force on wheel (alternating current): 22,000 decanewtons.
  • Force on wheel at maximum speed (300 km/h): 10,560 decanewtons.
  • Braking: Electric, rheostatic, automatic, immobilisation and parking.
  • Parking brake: Immobilisation of the unit on a ramp of 30 mm/m unladen, in running order and with strong wind.
  • Electric brake: Rheostatic.
  • Pneumatic brake: Brake blocks on motor bogies and disk brakes on carrying bogies.
  • Signalling systems: LZB and ASFA.
  • Traction and collision devices: Scharfenberg.
  • Units in service: 22.
  • Main builder: Alstom.

Weights and Dimensions

  • Total train length: 200.150 metres.
  • Maximum length of power cars: 22.130 metres.
  • Length of bodies of end trailer cars: 21.845 metres.
  • Length of bodies of intermediate trailer cars: 18.700 metres.
  • Maximum width of the power car body: 2.814 metres.
  • Maximum width of the trailer car body: 2.904 metres.
  • Distance between carrying bogies: 18.700 metres.
  • Distance between axles of carrying bogies: 3 metres.
  • Load per axle: 17.2 tonnes.
  • Unladen mass in running order: 392.6 tonnes.
  • Mass of train with normal load: 421.5 tonnes.

More information

© Renfe. All rights reserved.
Legal information | Web accessibility