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AVE Series 102/112

S-102 and S-112 electric rail car data sheet

On 24 March 2001, the Board of Directors of Renfe awarded the construction of 16 high-speed trains that would constitute the 102 series to a consortium formed by Talgo and Bombardier. The contract also included maintenance of the trains for 14 years. Subsequently, on 3 March 2004, this order was expanded to 30 more units, which were definitively awarded on 29 November 2005 after subsequent negotiations, although the delivery of these trains was postponed to between August 2008 and December 2010.

In these 30 units, the number of Standard class seats is increased from 193 to 220 by rationalising the space in this class, and the series would become known as the 112.

The trains of the 102 series entered commercial service for the first time on 26 February 2005 on the Madrid-Zaragoza-Lleida line, and as from April 2005 they also started travelling to Huesca.

With these contract awards, which represented the Spanish company's first incursion into the high-speed segment, Talgo concluded a long process of research and development that began in 1988, after deciding not to submit a quotation to the first request for quotation for rolling stock of the Madrid-Seville line due to a lack of specific material with these characteristics.

All the cars of the first order were manufactured by Talgo in Rivabellosa (Álava). In turn, the first four power cars were manufactured at the factory that Bombardier has in Kassel (Germany), and the remaining 28 were produced at the Matas factory (in Madrid). Bombardier was responsible for the bogies and electrical equipment, and Talgo was responsible for the structure, cab and brakes.



Each train of the 102 series consists of two power cars that encompass 12 Talgo trailers that are similar to those of the 7 series, but improved, especially regarding the wheel sets (they have a primary suspension, and since the gauge is not variable, they take advantage of the space for brake disks), and the interior design is different. Likewise, since they have independent wheels, the risk of axle override is reduced in the event of rolling over an object on the rail, plus each wheel set has an exterior and interior temperature sensor and an instability detector. The train can reach a speed of 330 km/h, and its unladen weight is 332 t (357 t loaded).

The maximum weight per axle is 17 tonnes, and the total train length is 200 metres. The length of the intermediate cars is 13.14 metres, and the height of the floor above the rail is 756 millimetres, which allows the base of the doors to be flush with the station platform height. The width of each car is 2942 mm, and their height is 3365 mm.

In turn, the power car has a length of 20 metres, a maximum width of 2.96 metres and a height of 4 metres. The characteristic shape of the power car of the trains of the 102 series (in the peculiar aerodynamic shape of a duck's head) was developed in a wind tunnel. Its special design decreases the pressure waves that are produced when the train passes through tunnels, and it reduces the effect of side winds.

The bodies are built of light-weight materials, welded extrusions of aluminium alloy, such that the weight per seat is highly reduced, which allows a 15 percent saving in energy consumption. Moreover, the fairing incorporates a new treatment that reduces drag and eliminates noise.

The connections between cars are articulated, and they also have anti-roll and anti-overriding systems. The train is pressurised and has an innovative exterior connection system for the air conditioning equipment, plus a hermetic seal using special gaskets for exterior doors and gangway doors between cars.

Ride stability is favoured by the very low centre of gravity of each composition.

The train's easy access is also notable, given that on 55-cm station platforms, the running board matches the station platform height, and on 76-cm platforms, the floor of the train matches the station platform height.

The train lacks the classic rear-view mirrors, which are replaced by four cameras placed on the two sides of the power cars for viewing the sides of the train. Moreover, these screens can be switched over to other screens of the cab, and in the event that the ETCS/ERTMS fails, the information can be viewed from these screens.

Traction and auxiliary systems

Each power car has 4000 kW of power, which means combined continuous power of 8000 kW and specific power of 24.7 kW/t. The power supply voltage is 25 kV at 50 Hz. The starting tractive force is 200 kN, the maximum speed is 330 km/h and the maximum lateral acceleration on a curve is 1.2 m/s2. Each power car has two bogies, type Bo' Bo', with independent traction per axle.

The traction equipment is single-voltage, with one converter per bogie equipped with IGBT technology, and there are 8, three-phase asynchronous motors (one per axle), with 1 MW of power. It has one pantograph for current collection.

The cab is pressurised, which improves the driver's comfort, whose driving position is centred. The layout of the command and power elements has been designed ergonomically, and information about the train's situation can be monitored indistinctly on the two side screens. The pressure in the machine room on the power cars is greater than the exterior pressure to prevent dust from entering the machines, thereby preventing failures and increasing reliability, while at the same time reducing maintenance costs.

Likewise, the train has a GSM-R communications system, the ASFA 200, and it has ETCS/ERTMS signalling equipment, levels 1 and 2, as well as LZB.

The power cars have meters to measure the energy consumed and returned to the power grid, as well as detectors that allow closing the air inlet hatches when passing through tunnels and passing by other trains to prevent passengers from being bothered by pressure waves.

Finally, it should be pointed out that the electronic equipment is water-cooled, which avoids the use of contaminating liquids.

The vehicle incorporates a control and safety system that monitors incidents and runs diagnostics of failures based on the records obtained while under way, with instant transmission to the maintenance shop.

Bogies and brakes

The train has 21 axles, eight of which are power axles distributed on four motor bogies. Two of these bogies are located on each power car, with a Bo'Bo' distribution. The running gear of the cars includes independent wheels with a primary suspension, located between the cars, guided on the track and with very low aggressiveness on the rail.

The main suspension is pneumatic, "pendular" type, with the natural inclination of the bodies towards the inside of curves. All cars have one wheel set, except for the cafeteria, which has two.

The train has a regenerative brake, such that when the electric brake is used, instead of dissipating the energy on resistors (rheostatic brake), it uses the energy to power the auxiliary services and the surplus is returned to the catenary so that it can be used by another train or by auxiliary services of the infrastructure or, ultimately, so that it can be returned to the public power grid.

It also has the advantage that, in "neutral zones", given that there is no external power supply, it feeds the auxiliary services with the regenerative brake, which prevents the interruption of these services, thereby improving service quality and the life of the systems, although on steep slopes, use of the brake for powering auxiliary services can cause excessive reduction of speed.

The power cars are equipped with a pneumatic brake with three disks per axle, two of which are located on the wheels. The electric brake is a recovery brake (4200 kW) and a rheostatic brake (3200 kW).

It likewise has a pneumatic brake system on the four disks per axle, with an ABS system.

Technical Specifications

  • Traction: Electric.
  • Track gauge: 1.435 metres.
  • Power cars: 2.
  • Minimum composition: M + 12 R + M.
  • Voltage: 25 kVAC and 50 Hz.
  • Power: 4000 kW x 2.
  • Specific power: 24.7 kW/t.
  • Motors: 8 asynchronous.
  • Bogie distribution on the power car: Bo-Bo.
  • Motor bogies: 4.
  • Bogie wheelbase: 2.650 m.
  • Number of motor axles: 8.
  • Talgo wheel sets: 13.
  • Maximum number of train axles: 21.
  • Maximum speed: 330 km/h.
  • Starting tractive force: 200 kN.
  • Transformers: 2.
  • Maximum lateral acceleration on a curve: 1.2 m/s2.
  • Converters: 4, IGBT technology.
  • Pneumatic brake: On motor axles, 2 disks on the wheel and 1 on the axle. Carrying axles: 2 disks on the wheel and 2 on the axle.
  • Electric brake: Recovery (8800 kW) and rheostatic (5400 kW).
  • Signalling: ERTMS, levels 1 and 2; STM from LZB; and ASFA.
  • Total seating capacity: 316 in the 102 series and 353 in the 112 series.
  • Builder: Talgo/Bombardier consortium.

Weights and Dimensions

  • Train mass: 322 t.
  • Power car mass: 68 t.
  • Car mass: 14 t.
  • Weight per axle: 17 t.
  • Train length: 200 m.
  • Power car length: 20 m.
  • Power car height: 4 m.
  • Power car width: 2.96 m.
  • Car length: 13.140 m.
  • Length of end cars: 13.890 m.
  • Car height: 3.365 m.
  • Height of the floor above the rail: 0.756 m.
  • Car width: 2.942 m.

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