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S-447 electric rail car

The 447 series is the successor of the 446, and it was designed according to three-phase current technology, which this series incorporated for the first time in Spain. The main advantages are:

  • Greater acceleration.
  • Increased maximum velocity, reaching up to 120 km/h.
  • Energy consumption reduced by more than 5 percent.
  • A significant reduction in the weight of the electrical part.
  • A lower bogie weight due to using three-phase asynchronous motors instead of direct-current motors.
  • Reduced maintenance costs.
  • Greater ride comfort and better track wear due to having completely suspended drives.

The invitation to tender specifications also required that the new unit be compatible with the units of the 446 series so that they could be coupled to each other using multiple control. As expected, the speed, traction and braking performance of the resulting train would correspond to that of the 446 series. In addition, the differences regarding the vehicle's body, the interior design, the driver's desk and control would be minimum with respect to the 446 units.

The technical and construction project of the 447 series was conceived and developed between 1991 and 1992. All the 183 units that were built were awarded and built in four lots. In February 1993, after eight months of track testing, the first train of this series entered commercial service in Valencia, which was also the prototype of the 71 trains comprised in the initial lot of the 447 series, acquired in April 1991.

The second lot (trains 72 to 117) consisted of 46 trains, with a more classical seat distribution as the most significant difference, thereby increasing the seated capacity and reducing the standing capacity. These units were delivered between 1995 and 1996. The third lot consisting of 20 units acquired in July 1997 was delivered between 1998 and 1999, and the 46 units of the fourth lot were acquired in March 1998. The 183 trains are operating on the suburban train lines of Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia and Murcia/Alicante. Each train is composed of three cars: two power cars at the ends and a trailer car in the centre. A total of up to 4 units can be coupled together and operate as one.

These trains, with the mechanical and auxiliary equipment part conceived and designed by CAF and the electrical power and control equipment conceived and designed by Siemens, were built by Adtranz (currently Bombardier), CAF and Siemens.

Equipment

Body

The body structure is self-supporting, made of welded copper steel. The end walls located on the power cars are made of polyester and enclose an anti-collision structure. A large, reinforced and impact-resistant windscreen provides the driver with high visibility and protection.

Externally, the 446 and 447 units are identical, differentiated by some grilles and by the car numbering. The letter "M" or "R" for power car or trailer car is shown on the top front and side, in white on the 446 units and in yellow on the 447 units.

The interior layout is the same in the three cars, except for the space used for the driver's cab, where the driver's desk, the upper instrument panel and the cabinets with the low-voltage switch gear are located, in addition to climate control and the communications, IT and safety equipment. Only two control cabinets are located in the trailer car, as well as a space for the WC.

Each car is accessed from the side through 3 vestibules, each provided with double-leaf, electrically operated doors (sliding-recessing type), equipped with mobile running boards and an opening clearance of 1300 millimetres. These platforms provide four passenger compartments configured around a central aisle, and they are equipped with both fixed and pull-down seats. The walls and ceiling are lined with polyester that has an anti-adherent coating. The height of the floor is relatively low (1150 millimetres) and is uniform throughout the unit. The sides, which are slightly inclined to improve the aesthetics, have fixed windows of reflecting glass that give the sensation of a continuous strip from the outside. The windows installed on the front ends and sides are reinforced for greater safety while under way. Finally, hinged, longitudinal skirts complement the train's line.

The undercarriage of each power car contains the main box, the transformer and the reactor, plus the static converter for auxiliaries, the climate control condenser units and the pneumatic panels. In turn, the trailer car contains the high-voltage box, the battery box and the battery charger, plus the climate control condenser units, the compressors, the pneumatic panels and the equipment box. Likewise, the brake resistors are located on the roof of each power car, with the two pantographs and the lighting rod on the trailer car. The coupler is the Scharfenberg type, with mechanical, pneumatic and electrical coupling. The couplers are automatic on the free end-walls and semi-permanent on the coupled end-walls.

Sistemas de tracción y auxiliar

El equipo de potencia y control está constituido por dos circuitos de tracción y freno eléctrico, idénticos pero de funcionamiento independiente, instalados cada uno de ellos en cada coche motor, excepto las partes comunes que se sitúan en el coche remolque. El equipo de captación de corriente, común para los dos equipos de potencia, está constituido por dos pantógrafos; un disyuntor general; dos pararrayos y dos juegos de seccionadores.

El equipo de potencia y control incorpora el uso de tiristores GTO, empleo de fibra óptica para el envío de señales y el control con técnicas de microprocesamiento. Esta configuración del equipo de tracción, con tecnología trifásica, da a la serie 447 su carácter diferenciador respecto a las unidades serie 446, ya que ambos trenes poseen idénticas características generales en lo referido a funcionalidad y conducción. Esta innovación permite aceleraciones superiores y una velocidad máxima de 120 km/h frente a los 100 km /h de la serie 446, a pesar de tener ambos trenes la misma potencia de tracción en régimen continuo (2.400 kW).

Por otra parte, el consumo energético de la 447 es un 12 por ciento inferior al de los trenes de la serie 446. Esta reducción se consigue mediante un mayor rendimiento de los motores, mejor funcionalidad del freno eléctrico de recuperación (con tasas de recuperación de hasta un 30 por ciento) y un menor peso. La UT 447 pesa 162 toneladas frente a las 167 de la 446. Igualmente, los costes de mantenimiento son un 25 por ciento inferiores a los de la UT 446.

Cada coche motor lleva cuatro motores (ocho en total la unidad). Estos motores atacan cada un de los ejes del coche motor por un acoplamiento elástico de doble engranaje tipo WN.

Cada equipo de potencia está básicamente constituido por:

  • Un chopper de entrada, formado a su vez por dos “chopper bifásicos” de funcionamiento entrelazado y desfasados 180º.
  • Un circuito intermedio, constituido por un ondulador trifásico, de tensión y frecuencia variable.
  • Un chopper de freno eléctrico reostático, que trabaja cuando la línea catenaria no admite recuperación de energía.
  • Cuatro grupos de transmisión y potencia, constituido cada uno de ellos por un motor de tracción trifásico asíncrono, con una potencia nominal de 320 kW; un reductor de doble etapa y eje de salida hueco, unido rígidamente al motor de tracción; y un acoplamiento, que conecta mecánicamente el eje hueco de salida del reductor con el eje de ruedas mediante un sistema cardánico.

Los equipos auxiliares que equipan el tren son:

  • Para el suministro de alumbrado, control de tracción, climatización, compresores y batería cuenta con dos convertidores estáticos a 2.400 Vcc, y una potencia de 125 KVA, con salidas a 380 Vca y 72 Vcc.; y una batería de níquel-cadmio de 72 Vcc., 55 elementos, 190 A/H. En caso de avería de un convertidor, el otro alimenta automáticamente la unidad con el 50% de climatización y alumbrado.
  • La producción de aire para los equipos neumáticos se efectúa a través de un compresor principal accionado por un motor de 12 kW que proporciona 1.400 litros/min. a 10 bar. El aire se almacena en depósitos de 500 litros.

Para la climatización cuenta con dos unidades por coche que proporcionan refrigeración y calefacción, y que se refuerza con calentadores situados a nivel del piso de los departamentos. El control se realiza desde las cabinas. Las prestaciones de climatización son de 34.500 kcal/h en cada coche (22 kW) y de 34,5 kW por coche en calefacción.

Bogies and brakes

Each car has two bogies, with two axles each with solid wheels that are surface-tempered, journal boxes with bearings and elastic guiding by rods.

The bogie frame is welded steel. The primary suspension is by coil springs, and the secondary suspension is pneumatic. Both have vertical dampers, in addition to horizontal dampers on the secondary suspension.

The body of the car is supported on the bogie frame, without a bolster beam, wherefore the horizontal forces are transmitted by a pivot and drive rods.

The motor bogie has two asynchronous traction motors suspended from the structure of the bogie. Each motor has an independent transmission assembly, formed by a hollow shaft coupling and a Cardan system, in addition to a completely suspended, two-stage reducer gear.

The pneumatic brake system of the motor bogie is composed of four disk brakes mounted on the wheels and operated by four pneumatic cylinders, in addition to two brake blocks equipped with an accumulator spring for the parking brake. The brake system of the trailer bogie is integrated by four disk brakes fitted on the axles, operated by four brake cylinders, two of them with the parking brake incorporated.

All axles have tachometers. The end axles have flange lubrication and a rail guard/snow plough.

The train unit has the following brake systems:

  • Electric recovery and/or rheostatic brake, with preference of the former over the latter.
  • Pneumatic brake.
  • Service brake: electric and/or pneumatic brake, blended type, with preference of the former over the latter.
  • Parking brake by accumulator spring.

The service brake is combined, electric and/or pneumatic, and it recovers energy to the extent that the catenary admits it. Braking action is controlled by a microprocessor. It is possible for this unit to be driven by pre-set speed.

Technical Specifications

  • Composition: M-R-M.
  • Track gauge: 1668 mm.
  • Power supply voltage: 3000 VDC.
  • Multiple composition: Up to 3 train units.
  • Continuous load power: 2400 kW.
  • Motors: 8, three-phase asynchronous motors of 320 kW each.
  • Type of motor: Three-phase asynchronous.
  • Maximum tractive force on wheels: 195 kN.
  • Maximum starting tractive force: 230 kN.
  • Tractive force at maximum speed: 58 kN.
  • Maximum speed: 120 km/h.
  • Acceleration at start-up: 1 m/s2.
  • Acceleration between 0 and 60 km/h: 0.75 m/s2.
  • Acceleration between 0 and 100 km/h: 0.60 m/s2.
  • Acceleration between 0 and 120 km/h: 0.50 m/s2.
  • Normal deceleration: 1.0 m/s2.
  • Deceleration with electric brake only: 1.0 m/s2.
  • Maximum emergency deceleration: 1.2 m/s2.
  • Start-up on ramp: 35 mm/m.
  • Power supply for auxiliaries: 2 static converters.
  • Energy input to the converter: 3000 VDC.
  • Energy output to auxiliaries: 380 VAC and 72 VDC.
  • Pantographs per train: 2 on the intermediate trailer car.
  • Dynamic brake: Regenerative and rheostatic.
  • Continuous pneumatic brake: Compressed air.
  • Pneumatic brake control: Electric + pneumatic.
  • Parking brake: Manual by screw.
  • Coupling device: Scharfenberg.
  • WCs per train: 1.
  • Passenger doors per side: 3 x 3.
  • Driving with pre-set speed: Yes.
  • Driver's cabs: 2.
  • Multiple control: Yes.
  • Signalling in the cab: ASFA.
  • Heating: Electric.
  • Air conditioning: 1 unit per car.
  • Interior lighting: Fluorescent and halogen.
  • PA system: Yes.
  • Lighted information indicators: Yes.
  • Seats in M/R car, Composition A: 78/78.
  • Seats in M/R car, Composition B: 90/90.
  • Total seats: 234/270.
  • Standing capacity per car, Composition A: 152/164.
  • Standing capacity per car, Composition B: 123/145.
  • Total standing capacity: 468/391.
  • Total train unit capacity, Composition A: 702/661.
  • Units built: 183.
  • Receiving years: 1993-2001.

Weights and Dimensions

Dimensions (in mm).

Dimensions (in mm).
Power car Trailer car Total
Length between couplings 25,479 25,035 75,993
Exterior width 2900 2900 2900
Maximum height above the rail 4185 4185 4185
Distance between bogies 17,400 17,775 -
Bogie wheelbase 2500 2500 -
New wheel diameter 890 890 -
Height of the floor above the rail 1150 1150 -

Weight (t).

Weight (t).
Power car Trailer car Total
Bodies 37.5 32.3 107.3
Bogies 21.0 13.2 55.2
Tare 58.5 45.5 162.5
Maximum load (1st, 3rd and 4th lot/2nd lot) 17.3/16.61 18.4 53.6/51.6
Maximum weight (1st, 3rd and 4th lot/2nd lot) 75.8/75.1
64.5/63.8
216.1/214.1

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