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S-594 diesel rail car

The 594 series of rail cars is composed of 23 compositions of two vehicles, which were contracted and delivered in two different periods. The first consisted of 16 trains whose delivery was finalised in 1998, and the second consisted of 7 trains whose construction ended in 2001.

The first trains of the series started providing service in Galicia in 1997 along corridor A (Coruña - Santiago - Vigo) and then in Andalucía in 1998, and finally the Madrid-Salamanca route was added in 1999. These rail cars have great acceleration power (0.8 m/s²) and succeeded in reducing travel times by an average of 20 percent on some routes (Medina-Salamanca and Salamanca-Palencia).

Two fundamental advantages distinguish the 594 series: its availability and its reliability. Availability is assured through the modularity concept according to which these vehicles are built. This makes it possible to disassembly almost all the train's elements that require upkeep and maintenance tasks, such that the modules can be very easily removed and replaced by others. Reliability is assured through the redundancy of almost all pieces of equipment.

A third characteristic of this series is the incorporation of "flexiliner" technology, which was proved in German IC3 diesel traction trains. This technology is based on modularity, such that technical modifications and advances can be introduced without losing the basic characteristics of the initial concept.

These compositions have been built by the CAF-Bombardier consortium (previously Adtranz), and there are two sub-series: the 100 (594.1) and the 200 (594.2).

The fundamental characteristic of the 100 sub-series is body tilting using CAF's Intelligent Integrated Tilting System (SIBI). This system consists of a mechanism that is capable of providing optimum body inclination with respect to the bogies on curves, thereby managing to reduce the effect of centrifugal force. Thus, speed can be increased on curves, while at the same time increasing passenger comfort.

The 200 sub-series incorporates BRAVA bogies (Self-propelled Variable Gauge Bogies), which make it possible to change between UIC and national gauge tracks. This change is made without having to stop the train at any time and at a speed of 15 km/h. In turn, drivers have a device to ensure proper operation of these bogies, which involves the installation of a console in each cab to control the temperature of the hollow shaft and of the bearings. If they reach a temperature exceeding 110 degrees, the train is stopped by the driver, and if the driver does not stop the train, an emergency stop is made.

The train unit is formed by two power cars. These power cars can be grouped to form compositions of five units, meaning ten cars. The train, whether formed by one unit or several units, can be driven from a single driver's desk.



The structure of the 594 rail car is self-supporting, with tilting bodies made of light-weight aluminium alloy. It has an end wall system with an inflatable contour and a rotating driver's desk that allows passage between units after coupling. The vehicle's main equipment has been installed on the undercarriage.

All the assemblies of which the vehicle is composed have a modular design, such that they can be quickly removed and replaced.

They are coupled using Schafenberg automatic couplers on the cab side, with an electrical, mechanical and pneumatic system, while the coupling between two power cars is a semi-permanent type.

Two exterior double doors, one on each side of the car, which are sliding and electrically operated, provide a clearance of 1300 mm for passenger access. Likewise, there are two more doors per car, on each side, for service access to the driver's cab.

Access is made through a single vestibule in the centre of each car. Two exterior doors, on each side, provide access to the vestibule, while two interior doors provide access to the lounges. Each exterior door has a retractable, pneumatically operated running board that allows access to station platforms of different heights.

Traction and auxiliary systems

Propulsion is provided through four, 300-kW, water-cooled diesel engines, which drive the four bogies through hydraulic gearboxes.

The diesel engine is four-stroke with a horizontal layout, and it is water-cooled and has a direct injection system. It is turbo-charged through the compression of exhaust fumes. Transmission is by turbo transmissions.

To reduce the fuel expense as much as possible, a light-weight aluminium alloy for the body was selected, in addition to a low-consumption propulsion unit. The specific minimum consumption of the engine ranges between 195 and 225 grams per kilowatt and hour, for powers of between 100 and 50% of the rated power.

A Micas S2 microprocessor, designed and manufactured by Bombardier, is responsible for electronic control of traction and braking. In each car, this control is performed when the microprocessor connects to the electronic control systems of each one of the various pieces of power, transmission or braking units.

Electric current is generated through four, 35-kW alternators that provide current at 380/220 V, which also feeds the battery chargers.

Compressed air production is provided by two screw compressors located on the undercarriage of each car. Each compressor is equipped with a drying unit.

The air conditioning is provided by equipment located on the roof, which pump in hot and cold air. When it is cold, air is pumped through an upper channel and is distributed in the roof. When hot, it flows through bottom channels next to the floor. The total cooling capacity is 64,000 kcal/h in the passenger lounges and 4500 kcal/h in the driver's cabs.

Bogies and brakes

The first 16 compositions are prepared for using tilting bogies, given that they were built with tilting bodies and are equipped with an electro-mechanical actuator and bolster beam. There are two bogies per car, with two axles each, solid wheels that are surface-tempered, journal boxes with bearings and elastic guiding by rods. The primary suspension is by coiled springs, and the secondary suspension is pneumatic. The last train of the first delivery, together with the seven trains delivered in the second order, left the factory with active tilting incorporated.

The braking equipment is controlled electro-pneumatically through two pipes and two disks per axle. The parking brake is spring-loaded.

Service deceleration is 1.0 m/s², and emergency deceleration is 1.1 m/s². Likewise, two compositions have "Brava" bogies, which are suitable for automatic gauge change.

Tilting system

All the bodies of the series are prepared for using tilting bogies, although only eight trains have the tilting system incorporated at the factory.

The entire route taken by the train is recorded in the system's memory, which allows the vehicle to start tilting at the very instant that it initiates a curve. This is how these trains are able to take curves at a higher speed than other trains, while providing greater passenger comfort.

Technical Specifications

  • Minimum composition: M-M.
  • Multiple composition: 5 units (10 cars).
  • Track gauge: 1668 mm.
  • Doors per side/car: 2 (passenger + service).
  • Body structure: Self-supporting aluminium.
  • Maximum speed (km/h): 160 km/h.
  • Seating capacity per train unit: 126 + 1 PRM or 2 folding seats.
  • Diesel traction engines: 4.
  • Total traction power: 1200 kW.
  • Power per engine: 300 kW.
  • Inclining bodies: Active tilting.
  • Autonomy: 1000 km.
  • Service acceleration: 0.8 m/s2.
  • Emergency deceleration: 1.1 m/s2.
  • Service deceleration: 1.0 m/s2.
  • Builder: CAF –Adtranz (Bombardier).
  • Units built: 23.

Weights and Dimensions

  • Total train length: 47,748 mm.
  • Length of the car: 23,474 mm.
  • Width of the car: 2937 mm.
  • Height of the car: 3888 mm.
  • Pivot pitch: 17,734 mm.
  • Height of the floor: 1300 mm.
  • Bogie wheelbase: 2500 mm.
  • New wheel diameter: 850 mm.
  • Train weight: 90.465 tonnes.
  • Weight of the power car: 45.232 tonnes.
  • Bogie weight: 26.040 tonnes.
  • Body weight: 90.465 tonnes.

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