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S-599 electric rail car

The average age of the fleet of medium distance conventional trains, which is approximately 30 years, will be considerably reduced in the upcoming years with the incorporation of 107 trains of the new 599 diesel series and 449 electric series, both manufactured by CAF.

The 599 series will consist of 50 trains, and each composition will be formed by two power cars and one trailer with two bogies each, which can be coupled to form compositions of up to three units (9 cars) using autocouplers. The traction system can be considered to be distributed, given that the engines are located on the bogies of the end cars.

The trains of the 599 series are an evolution of the 598 series, which consisted of 21 units also manufactured by CAF and which entered into service in 2004. These trains are also composed of 2 power cars, with 2 motor bogies, and one intermediate car, with 1325 kW of power, less than the 1528 kW of the 599 series.

While the trains of the new 599 series will be used on Iberian gauge track, it is possible to install Brava variable gauge bogies, which allow travelling on both Iberian gauge and UIC gauge track.

The maximum speed is 160 km/h, with a seating capacity of 187 (including one seat for persons with reduced mobility, PRM), plus two WCs (one standard and one for PRMs) and a multifunctional zone (with vending machines, a bike rack and a leisure area).

This train has a very aerodynamic profile, with an exterior image dominated by curved lines, including an end wall with a high-speed type of nose, a strip window along the entire train, roof fairing and skirting on the undercarriage.



The bodies of all the vehicles are self-supporting, and the design of the structure is based on large-dimensioned extruded profiles composed of a light-weight aluminium alloy. These profiles are continuous throughout the vehicle, and they are joined by welds at the edges, thereby forming the exterior line of the vehicle. Aluminium is used to reduce both the train's mass and its energy consumption as much as possible.

The design has been optimised with an anti-collision, energy-absorption system that improves the vehicle's passive safety through anti-overriding devices and deformable structures that respond to safety requirements for minimising the consequences in the event of a head-on impact.

The front, aerodynamically-shaped ends are manufactured out of fibreglass-reinforced polyester.

The coupling systems of these vehicles are concealed in the end walls by a fairing with an automatic opening and closing mechanism.

The intermediate car has a low floor and is adapted for persons with reduced mobility, for which it also includes both access ramps and signage and specific furniture.

Traction and auxiliary systems

The traction system is composed of four diesel engines, two in each power car, with a total power of 1528 kW. The engines are inline 6-cylinder engines, with direct fuel injection.

The engine's power is transferred to the motor shaft of the bogie by the hydraulic turbo transmission coupled to the reduction gear of the shaft through a Cardan joint.

Thanks to this motor drive distributed on the four drive chains, the train has sufficient power to provide acceptable performance, even in the unlikely failure of 2 drive chains at the same time.

On the other hand, the engines are water-cooled, with the reservoirs located on the roof. There is a 1400-litre capacity fuel tank in each car, which gives it autonomy exceeding 1000 kilometres, plus 12 hours of electric autonomy with maximum heating consumption.

Electricity generation is independent from traction. It is driven by two, 183-kW engines. Each engine feeds a 185-kVA alternator, which provides 220 VAC and 50 Hz to provide power to the various pieces of auxiliary equipment. This equipment is located on the roof of the trailer car. This system is redundant. Normally only one unit is operating, and the units alternate according to the number of operating hours.

The train has three 24-VDC batteries (nickel-cadmium) located on the undercarriage of each power car and on the roof of the intermediate car. The battery of each power car starts up the two diesel engines of their respective cars, and the battery of the car starts up the engine of the alternator that is going to operate.

Two air production units are installed on the undercarriage of the intermediate car. Under normal operation, only one of the units is in service.

For supplying power to the auxiliary equipment, each car has two motor-alternator units that are independent from traction. These power generator units are capable of powering 100% of the loads at maximum output, which allows complete redundancy of the system. In normal service, only one of the units will be operating, with the second on stand-by. If a failure occurred, the second unit would start automatically, without interruption of the train's services. The unit with the least number of operating hours will always start up.

Bogies and brakes

The train has six bogies, four motor bogies and two trailer bogies. Both types are formed by a frame, two axles with their corresponding journal boxes, the primary suspension, the secondary pneumatic suspension, a body-bogie coupling device and brake equipment composed of two disks on the axle.

Each bogie of the motor cars has one motor axle and one carrying axle. The secondary suspension is pneumatic, with two pneumatic springs (air bags) located on each side of the bogie. The primary suspension elastically joins the journal boxes to the bogie frame such that it transmits both the vertical loads (through two packages of vertical coaxial springs) and the guided transversal forces.

The 599 diesel rail car allows the installation of a Brava variable gauge bogie from CAF, thereby permitting it to travel on both Iberian gauge and UIC gauge track. The Brava system makes the gauge change automatically at approximately 30 km/h, without requiring prior preparation or stops.

The motor bogies have sanders. The bogie of the cab side also incorporates a flange lubrication system, a running board, a rail guard and the control sensors of the train's safety equipment.

The unit can be braked by using the service brake, which combines the hydro-dynamic brake and the pneumatic brake. The braking distance at 160 km/h is approximately 1000 metres. Deceleration under emergency braking is 1.1 m/s2.

Primary brake control is electro-pneumatic by means of redundant, electronic BCUs. In the event of a failure of the braking system, braking can be controlled by a conventional electro-pneumatic control without the loss of performance. In any situation, there is an independent channel for emergency braking. There is also a parking brake to ensure immobilisation of the train. Braking always initiates using the hydro-dynamic brake capacity. When this brake is not sufficient, it is complemented by the pneumatic brake. The train also has anti-slip and anti-slide systems on all axles.

Safety and communications

The train incorporates the ASFA Digital safety system. This equipment, which provides a basic set of Automatic Train Protection (ATP) functions, processes information coming from the track and supervises the driver's actions. The driver's cab includes Train-Ground radiotelephony equipment and other equipment that operates on the GSM-R network.

The train incorporates a data recorder in which, in a black-box type of system, the operating parameters of the entire train are recorded and saved. This same equipment performs the monitoring function (deadman).

The train has fire detection and extinguishing equipment consisting of various detection sensors located within the body (lounges, cabinets, etc.). They are connected to the central unit of this equipment, which in turn is connected to the diagnostics unit that informs the driver. The traction equipment, generation equipment and fuel tanks have a semi-automatic fire-extinguishing system. If a fire is detected, the system will activate the extinguishers installed in the engines and fuel tank, even though the driver may not be disposed to activate them.

All the equipment of the 599 is duplicated and optimised so that a failure of any of the systems does not leave the vehicle immobilised. It is equipped with the Cosmos control system developed by CAF's R&D Department within the European Rosin project. The system is a modular train supervision and control system based on the Train Communications Network (TCN) standard.

Technical Specifications

  • Builder: CAF.
  • Minimum composition: M1-R-M2.
  • Multiple composition: 3 units (9 cars).
  • Track gauge: 1668 mm.
  • Doors per side: 3 with a clearance of 1200 mm.
  • Body structure: Aluminium.
  • Maximum speed (km/h): 160 km/h.
  • Seating capacity per train unit: 184 seated + 1 PRM.
  • Diesel traction engines: 4.
  • Total traction power (continuous load): 1400 kW.
  • Power per engine: 382 kW.
  • Auxiliary engines: 2.
  • Auxiliary power (continuous load): 185 kVA.
  • Starting tractive effort: 154.61 kN.
  • Average acceleration (0-40 km/h): 0.63 m/s2.
  • Maximum deceleration, service brake: 1.1 m/s2.
  • Maximum deceleration, emergency brake: 1.1 m/s2.
  • Redundant elements: Traction equipment, auxiliary generator unit, compressor, brake control, train control system, double cooling circuit in the passenger air conditioning system, public address.
  • M1 seating capacity: 68.
  • R seating capacity: 53.
  • M2 seating capacity: 64.
  • Total seating capacity: 185.

Weights and Dimensions

  • Train weight: 157 tonnes.
  • Weight of power car M1: 54 tonnes.
  • Weight of power car M2: 56 tonnes.
  • Weight of the trailer car: 48 tonnes.
  • Load per axle: 13.1 tonnes.
  • Total train length: 75,980 mm.
  • Power car length: 25,850 mm.
  • Trailer car length: 24,280 mm.
  • Wheelbase of the power car body: 17,734 mm.
  • Wheelbase of the trailer car body: 18,000 mm.
  • Bogie wheelbase: 2500 mm.
  • Width of the body: 2940 mm.
  • Floor height: M1, M2: 1300 mm; R: 790 mm.
  • Train height: 4302 mm.
  • New wheel diameter: 850 mm.

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