Avlo is not a type of train but a product: Renfe's low-cost brand.

It launched with five units of the 112 series remodelled to adapt to the characteristics of the new service. The trains were overhauled in the Talgo workshops in Madrid, La Sagra, Malaga and Valladolid.

Both the outside of the carriages (in purple and orange) and the inside (with changes in the upholstery, in a light colour) set these trains apart from the rest of our fleet.


In the single Standard class, the distance between seats is the same and therefore maintains the comfort inherent to Ave trains. All seats have a power outlet.

The train has twelve carriages, although it could accommodate up to a maximum of 23. Seats offer the maximum in comfort, are foldable, with footrests and swivels, so that they can be turned in the direction of travel, with the exception of those at the ends of each carriage and those in the meeting room.

Each carriage has video monitors, in which, in addition to the usual entertainment programmes, information about the route and the situation of the train is provided thanks to GPS technology. Both outside and inside, there are electronic information panels with automatic warning activation.

Each seat has individual light, a folding table and electrical connection for computers or mobile phones. Air conditioning equipment is mounted under the chassis.

Seats for people with reduced mobility allow access from the wheelchair and, if not used, increase the capacity of the train because they can be sold to people with normal mobility.

The 112 series trains will be equipped with fire doors between carriages, rather than the traditional sliding glass doors.




Each train from the 112 series consists of two towing vehicles framing 12 Talgo trailers similar to those of the 7 series, although improved, especially in terms of the wheelsets (they have primary suspension, and because they do not have a variable gauge, this space is dedicated to the brake discs), and with a different interior design. Likewise, having independent wheels reduces the risk of an axle raising up if it passes over an object on the track, and in addition, each wheelset has an exterior and interior temperature meter, as well as an instability detector. The train can reach a speed of 330 km/h, with an empty mass of 332 t and a loaded mass of 357 t.

The maximum weight per axle is 17 tonnes, and the total length of the train is 200 meters. The length of the intermediate carriages is 13.14 meters and the height of the floor above the rail of 756 millimetres, allowing the base of the doors to be flush at the same height as the platform. The width of each carriage is 2,942 mm and its height is 3,365.

Meanwhile, the tractor head has a length of 20 meters, a maximum width of 2.96 and a height of 4 meters. The characteristic shape of the tractor head of the 102 series trains (with a peculiar aerodynamically shape reminiscent of a duck's head) was developed in a wind tunnel. Its special design decreases the pressure waves that occur when a train passes through tunnels and reduces the effect of the side wind.

The bodies are built with lightweight materials with welded aluminium alloy extrusions, so the weight per seat is very low, allowing an energy consumption saving of up to 15 percent. In addition, the fairing incorporates a new treatment that reduces resistance to forward movement and eliminates noise.

The joints between carriages are articulated with anti-roll and anti-slip systems. The train is pressurised and has an innovative external communication system of air conditioning and sealing equipment, with special joints for external doors and connecting doors between carriages.

By positioning the centre of gravity of each composition very low, smooth running is favoured.

The ease of access to the train is also noteworthy, because on the 55 cm platforms, the footboard coincides with the height of the platform, and on the 76 cm platforms the floor of the train coincides with the height of the platform.

The train does not have the classic side mirrors, which are replaced by four cameras located on the either side of the motors to see the sides of the train on-screen. In addition, these screens can be switched with other displays in the cab so that if the ETCS/ERTMS breaks down, the information can be viewed from here.

Traction and auxiliary systems

Each drivehead has a power output of 4,000 kW, which is a continuous joint power of 8,000 kW and the specific power is 24.7 kW/t. The supply voltage is 25 kV 50 Hz, traction force at start-up of 200 kN, maximum speed of 330 kilometres per hour and maximum side acceleration on a bend of 1.2 m/sg2. Each head has two Bo' Bo' bogies, with independent traction on each axle.

The traction equipment is single voltage, with a bogie converter equipped with IGBT technology and eight motors - one per axle- three-phase asynchronous with 1MW of power. It has a pantograph for current uptake.

The cab is pressurised, which improves the comfort of the driver, whose driving position is centred. The layout of the control and monitoring elements is ergonomic, highlighting the possibility of information on the location of the train that can be interchangeably monitored on the two side screens. The engine room, in the motors, has a higher pressure than the outside so that dust does not enter the machines, which prevents breakdowns and increases reliability, while reducing maintenance costs.

It also has a GSM-R communications system, Asfa 200 and carries ETCS/ERTMS in-cab signalling equipment at levels 1 and 2, as well as LZB.

The motors have meters for energy consumed and returned to the grid; as well as detectors that close air entry traps when passing through tunnels and crossing head-on with other trains to avoid the disturbance caused by pressure waves.

Finally, electronic equipment is water-cooled, which prevents the use of polluting liquids.

The vehicle incorporates a control and safety system that monitors incidents and performs the diagnosis of breakdowns based on records obtained while driving and with instantaneous transmission to the maintenance workshop.

Bogies and brake

The train has 21 axles of which eight are motorised, distributed in four motor bogies with two on each drivehead and a Bo'Bo' distribution. The carriages' rolling sets have independent wheels with primary suspension located between the carriages, guided on the track and with minimum aggression on the rail.

The main suspension is pneumatic, pendular, with a natural inclination of the bodies towards the inside of the bends. All carriages have one wheelset, except for the buffet car that has two.

The train has a regenerative brake, so when the electric brake is used, instead of dissipating energy in resistors (rheostatic brake) it uses it to feed the auxiliary services and return the surplus to the catenary so that it can be used by another train, or by the auxiliary services of the infrastructure or, ultimately, be returned to the public network.

It also has the advantage that in "neutral zones", since there is no external power, it feeds the auxiliary services with the regenerative brake, which prevents the interruption of these services, improving the quality of service and the life of the systems, although on steep gradients the brake to feed the auxiliaries can produce an excessive reduction of speed.

The tractor heads have a pneumatic brake with three discs per axle, two of which are located on the wheels. The electric brake is recovery (4,200 kW) and rheostatic (3,200 kW).

It also has a pneumatic brake system on the four discs per axle, with ABS system.

Technical Features

  • Traction: Electric.
  • Gauge: 1,435 metres.
  • Motor heads: 2.
  • Minimum composition: M + 12 R + M.
  • Voltage: 25 kV and 50 Hz ca.
  • Power: 4,000 kW x 2.
  • Specific power: 24.7 kW/t.
  • Engines: 8 asynchronous.
  • Distribution of bogies in tractor head: Bo-Bo.
  • Motor bogies: 4.
  • Bogie tie: 2.650 m.
  • Number of motor axles: 8.
  • Talgo wheelset: 13.
  • Maximum number of train axles: 21.
  • Maximum speed: 330 kn/h.
  • Traction force at start-up: 200 kN.
  • Transformers: 2.
  • Maximum lateral acceleration on a bend: 1.2 m/s2.
  • Converters: 4, IGBT technology.
  • Pneumatic brake: On motor axles; 2 discs on wheel and 1 on axle.
  • On carrier axles: 2 discs on wheel and 2 on axle.
  • Electric brake: Recovery (8,800 kW) and rheostatic (5,400 kW).
  • Signalling: ERTMS levels 1 and 2; STM-LZB and Asfa.
  • Total seats: 316 in series 102/353 of the 112.
  • Builder: Talgo/Bombardier Consortium.

Dimensions and Weights

  • Train mass: 322 t.
  • Towing vehicle mass: 68 t.
  • Carriage mass: 14 t.
  • Weight per axle: 17 t.
  • Train length: 200 m.
  • Towing vehicle length: 20 m.
  • Towing vehicle height: 4 m.
  • Towing vehicle width: 2.960 m.
  • Carriage length: 13.140 m.
  • Length of end carriages: 13.890 m.
  • Carriage height: 3,365 m.
  • Floor height above rail: 0.756 m.
  • Carriage width: 2.942 m.