449 electric railcar

This series of electric engines, manufactured by CAF, renewed Renfe's Media Distancia (Mid-distance) fleet along with the 599 (its diesel version). The original contract for the 57 electric trains of the 449 series provided that 23 trains would run exclusively on Iberian gauge and another of 34 vehicles that would be designed to drive on UIC gauge tracks.
Renfe was directly involved in the design of the interior of these trains using a digital model, as it had already done with very positive results with the design of the Civia platform. In fact, the 449 series trains are an adaptation to the mid-distance services of the Civia commuter train, with which it shares certain design and motorisation elements.


The arrangement has 260 seated seats, which are divided into 60 seats in end carriages A1 and A2, 56 in A4 and A5 and a total of 28 in A3, plus a space for people with reduced mobility in wheelchairs, and two strapontines (folding seats). Standard class.

All carriages have two lounges equipped with double passenger seats on either side of a central corridor. Some of the seats are facing and separated by a fixed table, and the rest have a folding tray. There are luggage racks mounted on the seats, in addition to a luggage compartment next to the access door for bulkier luggage.

The seats are reclining and have folding armrests. Each seat has a light for easy individual reading and a plug between the seats. The windows have manual, height-adjustable blinds.

The vehicles have emergency lighting and autonomous emergency lighting independent of the train's main batteries, for emergency situations. Each vehicle has a compact air conditioning equipment complemented by floor-level heaters. The cabins have their own air conditioning equipment.

The passenger information system facilitates the functions of public address, automatic station announcement, ambient music, etc., and incorporates: an information panel at the front of each cabin and another on each exterior side next to each access door; monitors in the passenger lounges for information and video entertainment and intercoms in all vehicles and a specific one in the reduced mobility seat.

The intermediate carriage platform is large, and includes: A toilet designed for people with reduced mobility, baby changer and emergency pushbuttons, and a common area with a bar. It also has an area equipped to transport 3 bicycles.

  • Maximum speed: 160 km/h national width
  • Seats: 258 + 1PMR
  • Sliding seats.
  • Folding table at each seat.
  • Work tables.
  • Individual reading light.
  • Train access adapted for people with reduced mobility
  • Space for people with reduced mobility
  • Multipurpose leisure area
  • Automatic interior and exterior doors
  • Space for transporting bicycles
  • Three toilets
  • Toilet adapted for people with reduced mobility
  • Space for changing nappies
  • Climate control throughout the train
  • Plugs in each seat
  • Separate luggage compartments in entrance ways
  • Information via interior and exterior display monitors
  • Information and on-board entertainment screens
  • Tannoy on board
  • Video surveillance system

The 449 series is an adaptation of the mid-distance services of the Civia commuter train, with which it shares certain design and motorisation elements. This new version of the Civia is an electric engine adapted to transporting passengers on mid-distance routes. Up to a maximum of 3 units (15 carriages) can be coupled using automatic couplings and the minimum composition consists of five carriages, two end carriages (A1 and A2) and three intermediate carriages (A4, A5 and A3).

The exterior image is dominated by curved lines, including an end carriage with an aerodynamic profile, a window that runs along the entire train, fairings on the roof and skirts to cover the under chassis.

The structure is made of aluminium and incorporates an anti-shock system by means of energy absorption, which improves the passive safety of the vehicle.

The A3 intermediate carriage has a low floor and is suitable for people with reduced mobility. It has an access ramp, signage and specific furniture.

Almost all the equipment, such as power or converter equipment, is redundant and optimised so that a failure in one of the systems does not immobilise the vehicle. It incorporates the Cosmos system, which is a control and supervision element based on the railway communications standard (TCN IEC6135-1). It is a modular system that combines all electronic and electromechanical elements contained within the same telecommunications network.

The train is designed to travel on Iberian gauge tracks (1,668 mm), being able to reach a maximum speed of 160 km/h, or 200 km/h in the case of vehicles adapted to drive on UIC gauge tracks (powered at 25 kV).



The structure is constructed of lightweight aluminium alloy, made from large aluminium extruded profiles and forming a self-supporting structure. Optimised design with anti-slip devices and deformable structures that minimise the consequences of a frontal impact while meeting safety requirements.

The aerodynamically shaped front-end carriages are made of fibreglass-reinforced polyester.

The couplings are hidden in the end carriages by a fairing with an automatic opening and closing mechanism.

Traction and auxiliary systems

The traction system consists of six electric motors, spread between the A1 and A2 carriages, (one each) and two in each of the A4 and A5 intermediate carriages, with a total power of 2,400 kW. The motors are asynchronous with squirrel cage rotor.

The motors are closed and self-ventilated, and are box-mounted. The power is transmitted from the motor to the axle by a mechanical articulation that transmits the rotational movement (gimbal type joint) to the gearbox mounted on the axle.

Two inverters control the traction power to be applied to the motors (each converter controls three motors). The traction inverter is directly powered by 6.5kV IPM's (Intelligent Power Modules). Each inverter is connected to two brake resistor blocks mounted on the roof to apply the rheostatic brake when the regenerative brake is not available.

Electricity is generated by two 297 kilovolt-amperes (kVA) static converters. Each converter generates enough voltage to power the different auxiliary equipment. The converter also generates an added voltage of 72 volts in direct current (Vcc) to charge the battery and power the DC equipment.

The train has two 72 Vcc (nickel-cadmium) batteries with 230 amps per hour (Ah) capacity, located under the frame of the A3 carriage body.

Two sets of air conditioning equipment is installed under the chassis of the bodies of carriages A4 and A5, although only one of them is in service during normal operation.

Safety and communications

The train incorporates the Asfa Digital system, which provides a basic set of Automatic Train Protection (ATP) functions, so the system processes information from the track while monitoring the driver's actions.

Another safety element is the Fire Detection equipment, which is composed of various detection sensors located inside the body (lounges, cabinets, etc.) and in the under chassis, connected to the equipment's mainframe which is in turn connected to the diagnostic mainframe that informs the driver.

The driver's cab has a mobile radio equipment for Train-Ground communication and radio equipment operating on the GSM-R network

The operating parameters of the entire train are recorded in a black box system, through a recorder built into the train. This same equipment performs the 'dead man' function, to ensure that the driver is able to drive the train while it is running.


Technical Features

  • Builder: Caf.
  • Minimum composition: A1-A4-A3-A5-A2.
  • Multiple composition: 3 units (15 carriages).
  • Power supply: 3,000 Vcc.
  • Gauge: 1.668 mm.
  • Doors on each side: 5 with a 1200 mm opening.
  • Body structure: Aluminium.
  • Maximum speed (km/h): 160 km/h.
  • Carriage A1 seats: 60.
  • Carriage A4 seats: 56.
  • Carriage A3 seats: 28 + 1 seat for people with reduced mobility.
  • Carriage A5 seats: 56.
  • Carriage A2 seats: 60.
  • Seats per train unit: 260 seats + 1 seat for people with reduced mobility.
  • Traction motors: 6.
  • Total installed traction power: 2,400 kW.
  • Maximum power per engine: 400 kW.
  • Auxiliary converters: 2.
  • Auxiliary converter power: 297 kVA.
  • Acceleration at start-up: 0.85/s2.
  • Average acceleration between 0 and 160 km/h: 0.30 m/s2.
  • Average service deceleration: 1.00 m/s2.
  • Average emergency brake deceleration: 1.00 m/s2.
  • Redundant equipment: Traction equipment, auxiliary converter, compressor, brake control, PA, train control system, double cooling circuit in passenger air conditioning system.
  • Weight of the train in tare: 172 tonnes.

Dimensions and Weights

  • Total train length: 98.970 mm.
  • Length between A1 and A2 couplers: 22.700 mm.
  • Length between A3, A4 and A5 lettering: 17.750 mm.
  • Length between carriage A1 and A2 bogie centres: 17.400 mm.
  • Length between carriages A3, A4 and A5 bogie centres: 17.750 mm.
  • End bogie tie: 2.500 mm.
  • Shared bogie tie: 2.700 mm.
  • Body width: 2,940 mm.
  • Train height : 4.300 mm.
  • Floor height of carriages A1, A2, A4 and A5: 1.270 mm.
  • A3 Carriage Floor Height: 790 mm.
  • New wheel diameter: 890 mm.