The original 70-strong 592 railcar series was built by Macosa and Ateinsa (now Alstom) to provide commuter services on non-electrified lines. Since 2000, most of these trains have been refitted, creating the 592.2 subseries for Media Distancia (Mid-distance) services. Part of the series has been modernised for commuter services.
All train compartments, including goods vans and driver's cabs, are air-conditioned.
The passenger access doors provide access to small spaces housing the toilets and passenger lounges.
On 592.2 series carriages, the partitions that divide the passenger lounges and access platforms have been glazed, thus enhancing light conditions and a greater sense of space in each carriage.
The entire series of carriages consists of a single class. The seats are ergonomic and fireproof.
Trains have a GPS public address system, ambient music and air conditioning. Bicycle racks are available next to the driver's cabs. Each carriage has a toilet.
The 592 series originally consisted of 70 trains, of which, in May 2007, 45 were used in mid-distance services and 23 in suburban services. These diesel railcars were built between 1981 and 1984 by Macosa and Ateinsa (now known as Alstom) and allocated to the Valencia-Fuente de San Luis and Zaragoza depots.
The aim of Renfe with this series in the early 1980s was to replace its diesel fleet, consisting at the time of railbuses, with limited seats and reliability, and the Ter, which were coming to the end of their life cycle and which offered an excessive number of 1st class seats.
At the end of the 1980s, this series was remodelled for the first time given the need to introduce them to long-distance services, with 20 receiving 1st class seats in the trailer car and a small cafeteria in one of the engine cars; this task was carried out in the Central Repair Shop in Valladolid. Under the name "Fast Railcar", these trains connected Madrid to Valencia and Gandía, with León and Ferrol, and with Algeciras. They also ran between Bilbao and A Coruña and between Valencia-Irun/Bilbao.
In 1994, the Regional Business Unit decided to refurbish the engines on all the trains in the series, purchasing new Man engines, the D 2866 LUE, which provided give up to 230 kW of useful power; however, following its installation this was reduced to 210 kW, so as not to damage its Voith transmission.
On 31 January 1996, 23 trains from this series were transferred to suburban services, thus officially dividing the series in terms of the specialisation of its services.
In the late 1990s, the Suburban Business Unit decided to embark upon the modernisation of these engines, with work being carried out at the Central Repair Shop in Valladolid. This modernisation sought to increase the reliability of this material, incorporating new D 2866 LUE type diesel engines with greater power and a range of technical improvements, as well as offering passengers a series of features similar to those on the 446 and 447 series trains.
The 592 mid-distance diesel cars underwent, from 2002 onwards, a major remodel, creating the 592-2 series, consisting of 27 units. This remodelling work, consisting of the refurbishment of the engines and interior design, made it possible to increase interior comfort and increase its performance. The engine refurbishment, which was carried out at the Central Repair Shop in Valladolid, consisting of the installation of new Man engines with an improved cooling system, increasing the maximum speed to 140 km/h.
The minimum stand-alone series of carriages consists of three carriages (Engine+Trailer+Engine) and the maximum series of three units, controlled from a single driving position.
Each carriage has three passenger lounges and two central passenger access platforms. The different units are coupled by means of Schafenberg couplings on the cab side, which are electromechanically and pneumatically coupled. The carriages of each unit are coupled mechanically, by means of a semi-permanent Schafenberg coupling. The minimum setup features two driver's cabs one in each direction, located in the engine cars.
Passengers access the train using two doors located on each side and in each of the three carriages. They are opened pneumatically and electrically, and in case of anomalies can also be opened manually. The engine cars also feature two additional doors, one to access the driver's cab and another to access the goods vans. The 592.2 series railcar body is faired at the front.
Traction and auxiliary systems
Each engine car is equipped with two MAN engines, while the middle trailer car has a genset under the frame that is separate from the traction equipment, to power the train's services.
The train is powered by 4 diesel engine: 210 kw (285 hp) on the 592 series (D 3256 BTXUE model); and 250 kw on the 592.2 series and the suburban 592 series (D 2866 LUE model). Each of these water-cooled engines drive the inner axle of the nearest bogie by means of a transmission and a helical-bevel gear unit mounted on the motor axle. These engines are four-stroke and supercharged, equipped with six horizontal in-line cylinders. The engines drive all four bogies.
Movement is transferred hydraulically from each engine; the system consists of a drive axle between the engine and the torque converter, a hydraulic coupling and a mechanical inverter to change the train's direction. Inside the axle is a helical-bevel gear unit. Each diesel engine mounted under the engine cars engages an alternator. The energy produced is used to charge the battery and for emergency lighting.
The middle carriage has a genset that drives a 380/220V, 120 kVA, 50 Hz and 1,500 rpm alternator, which supplies power for the lights, air conditioning equipment, battery charger and emergency lighting. The MD-19 type, cadmium-nickel batteries consist of 55 elements and have a nominal capacity of 192 A/h.
The air conditioning is provided through equipment installed inside the humps typical of the roofs of all bodies. These compact units are equipped with air diffusers that connect to the passenger compartments and the driver's cabs.
Bogies, brake and suspension
Each carriage has two bogies located at each end and, in the case of engine cars, both bogies are thrusters. The motor and trailer bogies are almost identical, with transverse displacement pivot and no swinging beam. The primary coil spring suspension, and the secondary pneumatic suspension, support the deformation produced by bogie rotation.
The brake system is pneumatic and compressed air is supplied by four compressors, each driven mechanically by each diesel traction engine. The braking equipment is equipped with two main pipes, the feed pipe and the pneumatic brake itself. All axles feature two brake discs and there is a brake cylinder to operate these discs. The braking effort is automatically regulated based on the train's load.
Air is generated by four compressors powered by the traction motors. It is stored in compressed air tanks and supplies the pneumatic brake, emergency brake, driver control and auxiliary services (sandboxes, door functions, tab grease, etc.)