S-599 Diesel railcar

The 599 series diesel trains, along with the electric 449 trains, both manufactured by Caf, were Renfe's major investment in the renovation of the Mid-Distance fleet a decade ago. The 599 series, an upgrade from the 598, consists of 50 Iberian gauge trains. The total power is 1,528 kW with a maximum speed of 160 km/h.

The 599 has capacity for 184 seats (including a priority seat for people with reduced mobility, PRM), two toilets (one standard and another PRM adapted) and a multipurpose area (with bike rack and rest area).

The intermediate carriage platform is large and includes a toilet designed for people with reduced mobility, baby changer and emergency pushbuttons, a common area with a bar, and an area equipped for transporting three bikes. There is a conventional toilet on the platform of the second engine carriage.

Each seat has a reading light and a power outlet between the seats. The windows have manual, height-adjustable blinds.

Each vehicle has compact air conditioning equipment complemented by floor-level heaters. The temperature control systems of the train's lounges consists of one set of temperature control equipment per carriage.

The passenger information system consists of PA equipment with the automatic announcement of stations and ambient music, among other features, and incorporates a front display in each cabin and an exterior sign next to each door, which informs of the train's route and its stops; monitors in passenger lounges for information and video entertainment; intercoms in all vehicles and a specific one in the seat for persons with reduced mobility. This system also has a video surveillance system with continuous recording.

The 599 series consists of 50 trains and each composition consists of two engine carriages and one trailer with two bogies each, which can be coupled forming compositions of up to three units, 9 carriages, using automatic coupling. The traction system can be considered to be distributed as the engines are located in the bogies of the end carriages.

The 599 series trains are an upgrade of the 598 series trains, a series consisting of 21 units also manufactured by Caf that began service in 2004. Although the trains from the new 599 series are currently being run on Iberian gauge tracks, there is the possibility of installing Brava variable gauge bogies, which allow the circulation of both Iberian and UIC gauge.

The maximum speed is 160 km/h, with a capacity for 187 seated passengers (including a priority seat for people with reduced mobility), two toilets (one standard and another for persons with reduced mobility) and a multipurpose area (with vending machine, bike rack and rest area).

This train has a very aerodynamic profile, with an exterior image in which curved lines dominate, including a high-speed nose, a window running along the entire train, roof fairings and skirts under the chassis.


The bodies of all vehicles are self-supporting and the design of their structure is based on large extruded profiles composed of a lightweight aluminium alloy. These profiles are continuous throughout the vehicle and are welded along the edges and form the vehicle's outer line. The use of aluminium is intended to minimise the mass of the train and its energy consumption.

The design has been optimised with a shock energy absorption system, which improves the passive safety of the vehicle by means of anti-slip devices, and deformable structures that meet safety requirements to minimise the consequences in case of frontal impact.

The aerodynamically shaped front-end carriages are made of fibreglass-reinforced polyester.

The coupling systems of these vehicles are hidden in the end carriage by a fairing with an automatic opening and closing mechanism.

The intermediate carriage has a low floor and is adapted for people with reduced mobility with a specific access ramp, signage and furnishings.

Traction and auxiliary systems

The traction system consists of four diesel engines, two in each engine carriage, with a total power of 1,528 kW. The engines are 6-cylinder in-line, with direct fuel injection.

The transmission of engine power to the bogie motor axle performed using the oleodynamic turbo-transmission coupled to the axle reducer by means of a Cardan-type joint.

Thanks to this motorisation distributed in the four traction chains, the train has enough power to give acceptable performance, even in the unlikely event of a simultaneous failure in 2 traction chains.

The engines are cooled by water, whose tanks are located on the roof. There is a fuel tank in each carriage with capacity for 1,400 litres of diesel oil, allowing it autonomy for more than 1,000 kilometres and more than 12 hours of electric autonomy with maximum heating consumption.

Power is generated independently of the traction. It is powered by two 183 kW motors. Each motor powers a 185 kVA alternator, which provides an output voltage of 380/220 Vca and 50 Hz to power the different auxiliary equipment. This equipment is located on the roof of the trailer carriage. This system is redundant, it typically operates a single group, and is alternated based on the number of hours of activity.

The train has three 24 Vcc (nickel-cadmium) batteries located under the chassis of each engine carriage's body and on the roof of the intermediate carriage. The battery of each engine carriage starts the two diesel engines of its own carriage, and the carriage battery starts the alternator engine that will start working.

Two air production equipment is installed under the chassis of the intermediate carriage body. In normal operation, only one of them is in service.

To power auxiliary equipment, each carriage has two motor-alternator groups independent of traction. These generator sets are capable of powering 100% of the loads at maximum performance, allowing total system redundancy. In normal service, only one of the groups will work, with the second on standby. If there is a fault, the second group will start up automatically, with no loss of train performance. The group that has the least operating hours will always be started up.

Bogies and brakes

The train has six bogies, four engines and two trailers. Both types consist of a chassis, two axles with their corresponding grease boxes, primary suspension, pneumatic secondary suspension, body-bogie coupling device and brake equipment consisting of two axle discs.

Each engine carriage bogie has an engine axle and a carrier axle. The secondary suspension is pneumatic with two pneumatic springs (balls) located on each side of the bogie. The primary suspension elastically joins the grease boxes with the bogie chassis so that it transmits both vertical loads (via two vertical coaxial spring packages) and transverse guidance loads.

The diesel 599 railcar has the possibility of installing the Caf variable gauge Brava bogie, which allows both Iberian and UIC gauge to circulate. The Brava system automatically changes gauges at about 30 km/h and without previous preparations or stops.

Engine bogies have sandboxes. The cab-side bogie also incorporates a flange greasing system, a footboard, rail guard and control sensors for train safety equipment.

The unit can brake using the service brake that combines the hydrodynamic brake and the pneumatic brake. The braking distance at 160 km/h is about 1,000 metres. Emergency brake deceleration is 1.1 m/s2.

Primary brake control is electro-pneumatic via redundant electronic BCUs. In the event of a fault, the brake system can be controlled by a conventional electropneumatic control without loss of performance. There is a separate channel for an emergency brake in any situation. It also has a parking brake to ensure the immobility of the train. The brake is always engaged using the hydrodynamic brake capacity. When this brake is not enough, it is complemented by the pneumatic brake. The train also has anti-lock and anti-slip systems on all axles.

Safety and communications

The train incorporates the Asfa Digital safety system. This equipment, which provides a basic set of Automatic Train Protection (ATP) features, processes information from the track by monitoring the driver's actions. The driver's cab has Train-Ground radio telephone equipment and another operating on the GSM-R network
The train incorporates a legal recorder where the operating parameters of the entire train are recorded in a black box system. This same equipment performs the function of surveillance system (dead man).

The train has fire detection and extinguishing equipment composed of various detection sensors located inside the body (lounges, cabinets, etc.) and is connected to the equipment's mainframe, which is in turn connected to the diagnostic mainframe that informs the driver. The traction, generation and fuel tank equipment have their own sensors and a semi-automatic fire extinguisher system. If a fire is detected, the system will activate the fire extinguishers installed in the engines and fuel tank, even if the driver is not in a position to operate them.

All 599 equipment is duplicated and optimised so that a failure in one of the systems does not result in the immobility of the vehicle. It is equipped with the control system (Cosmos), developed by the CAF R&D Department within the European Rosin project, which is a modular train control and supervision system based on the train communications standard (TCN).

Technical Features

  • Builder: Caf.
  • Minimum composition: M1-R-M2.
  • Multiple composition: 3 units (9 carriages).
  • Gauge: 1.668 mm.
  • Doors on each side: 3 with a 1200 mm opening.
  • Body structure: Aluminium.
  • Maximum speed (Km/h): 160 km/h.
  • Seats per train unit: 184 seats + 1 reduced mobility seat.
  • Diesel traction engines: 4.
  • Total traction power (continuous rating): 1,400 kW.
  • Power per engine: 382 kW.
  • Auxiliary engines: 2.
  • Auxiliary power (continuous rating) : 185 kVA.
  • Startup effort: 154.61 kN.
  • Average acceleration (0-40 km/h): 0.63 m/s2.
  • Maximum service brake deceleration: 1.1 m/s2.
  • Maximum emergency brake deceleration: 1.1 m/s2.
  • Redundant elements: Traction equipment, auxiliary generator group, compressor, brake control, train control system, double cooling circuit in passenger air conditioning system, PA.
  • M1 seats: 68.
  • R seats: 53.
  • M2 seats: 64.
  • Total seats: 185.


Dimensions and Weights

  • Train weight: 157 tonnes.
  • M1 engine carriage weight: 54 tonnes.
  • M2 engine carriage weight: 56 tonnes.
  • Trailer car weight: 48 tonnes.
  • Load per axle: 13.1 tonnes.
  • Total train length: 75.980 mm.
  • Engine car length: 25.850 mm.
  • Trailer carriage length: 24.280 mm.
  • Engine car body tie: 17.734 mm.
  • Trailer carriage body tie: 18.000 mm.
  • Bogie tie: 2.500 mm.
  • Body width: 2.940 mm.
  • Floor height: M1, M2 1300 mm, R 790 mm.
  • Train height : 4.302 mm.
  • New wheel diameter: 850 mm.